The theory of Northern Medicine is based on the Yin-Yang interactions and the eight trigrams, as used in Chinese Medicine.  Ultimately, the WHO has implemented a nine-year strategy to "support Member States in developing proactive policies and implementing action plans that will strengthen the role traditional medicine plays in keeping populations healthy.". Powdered antlers, horns, teeth, and bones are second in importance to ginseng, with claims ranging from curing cancer to curing impotence.  Three factors legitimize the role of the healer – their own beliefs, the success of their actions and the beliefs of the community. In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were listed - 442 were plant parts, 45 were animal parts, and 30 were minerals.  Spanish indigenous medicine was influenced by the Arabs from 711 to 1492. In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were listed - 442 were plant parts, 45 were animal parts, and 30 were minerals. Several clinical studies report that Asian ginseng can improve immune function. The book was translated into Dutch as Pemptades by Rembert Dodoens (1517–1585), and from Dutch into English by Carolus Clusius, (1526–1609), published by Henry Lyte in 1578 as A Nievve Herball. , Arabic indigenous medicine developed from the conflict between the magic-based medicine of the Bedouins and the Arabic translations of the Hellenic and Ayurvedic medical traditions. Yet, so many stereotypes exist for the traditional healers and their medicines that are collectively called muti. Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines 2019, 14 (4): 202-212.  Critically endangered species such as the Sumatran tiger are often being hunted to keep up with the illegal demand for tiger parts. Traditional medicines, homoeopathic medicines and medicated oils and balms are not presently subject to licensing for their manufacture, import and sale in Singapore. A home remedy (sometimes also referred to as a granny cure) is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain spices, herbs, vegetables, or other common items. , Arsenic, while possibly essential for life in tiny amounts, is extremely toxic in the amounts used and arsenic poisoning may result from use of arsenic containing remedies. Many are merely used as a result of tradition or habit or because they are effective in inducing the placebo effect.  Symptoms of gross overdose with Panax ginseng may include nausea, vomiting, irritability, restlessness, urinary and bowel incontinence, fever, increased blood pressure, increased respiration, decreased sensitivity and reaction to light, decreased heart rate, cyanotic facial complexion, red face, seizures, convulsions, and delirium. If taken habitually, it "brightens the intellect and prolongs life".  The Old Testament also mentions herb use and cultivation in regards to Kashrut. Acharya, Deepak and Shrivastava Anshu (2008): Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices, Aavishkar Publishers Distributor, Jaipur- India.  Pedanius Dioscorides drew on and corrected earlier authors for his De Materia Medica, adding much new material; the work was translated into several languages, and Turkish, Arabic and Hebrew names were added to it over the centuries. , Hornets nest (lu feng fang) is used to treat skin disorders and ringworm.  and served in specialized restaurants such as the Guo Li Zhuang restaurant in Beijing. They are often used with rhubarb, dried ginger and apricot seed. Human body parts and excreta have been used in TCM since ancient times.  They contain the blister agent cantharidin. Both Ren Zhong Huang and Ren Zhong Bai are used to treat inflammatory conditions and fungal infections of the skin and mouth.  The deer penis is typically very large and, under TCM it must be extracted from the deer whilst still alive. , Pinellia ternata is believed under TCM to be the strongest of all TCM herbs for removing phlegm. Sweet wormwood had fallen out of common use under TCM until it was rediscovered in the 1970s when the Chinese Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency Treatments (340 AD) was found. This pharmacopeia contained recipes for a tea from dried leaves, prescribed for fevers (not specifically malaria).  The first Chinese herbal book was the Shennong Bencao Jing, compiled during the Han Dynasty but dating back to a much earlier date, which was later augmented as the Yaoxing Lun (Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs) during the Tang Dynasty. It is said to aid in detoxification A scorpion venom peptide was found to help with arthritis in vitro.. African traditional medicine is a form of holistic health care system organized into three levels of specialty, namely divination, spiritualism, and herbalism. Various fungi are used in TCM. , Human penis is believed under TCM to stop bleeding, and as with other TCM medicines, the basis for belief in its therapeutic effects is anecdotal and not based on the scientific method; Li Shizhen, author of the greatest pharmacological work in pre-modern China, the Bencao Gangmu, objected to use of human penis, but cited the anecdotal evidence and thus included it in his book. Symptoms of mild overdose with Panax ginseng may include dry mouth and lips, excitation, fidgeting, irritability, tremor, palpitations, blurred vision, headache, insomnia, increased body temperature, increased blood pressure, edema, decreased appetite, increased sexual desire, dizziness, itching, eczema, early morning diarrhea, bleeding, and fatigue.  Ginseng may also lead to induction of mania in depressed patients who mix it with antidepressants. , The plant is mildly toxic and can cause gastrointestinal upset. The pairing of Tian Hua Fen and Zhi Mu had a faster, stronger and longer effect in reducing blood sugar levels than either herb alone. Cinnabar has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine as a sedative for more than 2000 years, and has been shown to have sedative and toxic effects in mice.  It was once so commonly used it was called "the king of the 100 herbs". In ancient times, herbalists thought that because of the way ginseng looks it could treat many different kinds of syndromes, from fatigue and stress to asthma and cancer. Martín de la Cruz wrote an herbal in Nahuatl which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis or Codex Barberini, Latin 241 and given to King Carlos V of Spain in 1552. zoonosis, mainly as some traditional medicines still use animal-based substances). The horn of a rhinoceros is used as an antipyretic - because it is believed to "cool the blood" - however several scientific studies failed to find any active antipyretic molecule in rhinoceros horn. , Birthworts (family Aristolochiaceae) are often used to treat many ailments, including hypertension, hemorrhoids, and colic. China has removed pangolin parts from its list of traditional medicines, state-backed media reported, in a move campaigners say is a vital step in helping to protect the endangered animal. Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Rosalyn Fraad Baxandall, Linda Gordon, Susan Reverb, America's Working Women: A Documentary History, 1600 to the Present, W. W. Norton & Company, 1995, p. 50, Madsen, Deborah L. The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature, Routledge, 2015. Only those who can understand Chinese characters could diagnose and prescribe remedies in Northern Medicine. With regard to the manufacturing and quality of traditional herbal medicines, applications for registration of these products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorisation. It was also referred to as dān (丹), meaning[vague] all of Chinese alchemy, cinnabar, and the "elixir of immortality".  One of the most common and characteristic symptoms of acute overdose of ginseng from the genus Panax is bleeding. , Extracts of the mushroom are used as a commercial pharmaceutical to suppress cancer cell proliferation and migration, although the mechanisms by which this is achieved are currently unknown. Kampo (or Kanpo) is a traditional Japanese therapeutic system, the bulk of which is derived from the classical Chinese medicine that came to Japan in the 5th and 6th centuries. From 1 January 2021, the MHRA may expand the list of countries from which it will accept evidence for traditional herbal medicines. , Blister beetles (Ban mao) are believed under TCM to treat skin lesions, because they cause them.  Human urine sediment is called Ren Zhong Bai. 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